Education, Unemployment And Domicile Law In Kashmir - JK News Live

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Friday, June 5, 2020

Education, Unemployment And Domicile Law In Kashmir




Rayees Nabi

Education is the most important instrument for human resource development. Education of women, therefore, occupies top priority amongst various measures taken to improve the status of women in India. It is considered to be the most effective weapon for implementing social change. In recent years, the focus of planning has shifted from equipping women for their traditional roles as house-wives and mothers to recognizing their worth as producers, making a major contribution to family and national income. Education has normally been viewed as an agency helping economic production, it is also said to provide instructions in appropriate skills. Thus, one of the aims of higher education is to develop efficiency in production. A great deal of ambivalence however exists as regards women’s education which has increased since women have begun to seek employment. Since the constitution has declared men and women as equals, the grounds of women’s education cannot be different from men’s education. Education for both should have vocational or occupational bias. Education in Jammu and Kashmir has modeled after the British education system due to the effects of colonization. The educational facilities and governmental infrastructure in Jammu and Kashmir is not very developed. Though studying in Jammu and Kashmir is gradually becoming the special option for resident students, not many international candidates travel to this Indian state for education. Both the UT and central government powers that are trying their best to improve the scenario of education in Jammu and Kashmir. With the establishment of several schools, colleges and universities in the state, people are hopeful that foreign / NRI students will soon travel to Jammu and Kashmir not only for tourism but also for educational purposes. However, there are reserved seats for foreign nationals in the CET (Common Entrance Test) examinations and the qualifying students can select to study in engineering colleges of Jammu and Kashmir. Jammu and Kashmir is not only the chosen terminus for studying general courses but also for pursuing professional courses. Professional curriculum has become very important because more and more people, both men and women, want to enter into a professional life as soon as possible in their lives. Therefore a professional degree is very important. There are many institutes of repute in Jammu and Kashmir that provide graduation and PG level courses to students. The Jammu and Kashmir colleges and universities have historical importance too and have been recognized as excellent centers of learning from time immemorial. All colleges in Jammu and Kashmir that provide degrees in general courses in the fields of arts, science and commerce are affiliated to the University of Kashmir. Unemployment rate in Jammu and Kashmir is higher than average National unemployment rate, with J&K having 24.6 percent population in the age of (18-29 years) unemployed which is far more than All India unemployment rate of 13.2 percent, reveals an official report. Jammu and Kashmir which is already facing the brunt of turmoil resulting in negligible investments with business marred by uncertainties, the unemployment rate indicates the problems which educated youth in Kashmir go through. In Jammu and Kashmir unemployment rate is 24.6 percent,while as the persons in the age of 18-29 years had 13.2 percent .Further the report mentions that in the age group of 30 years and above at all India level Is1.6 percent while in Jammu and Kashmir it is 1.3 percent. The number of unemployed youth registered in various District Employment Exchanges of the Jammu and Kashmir State is 111077 lakh as on ending March. However, the number is only representing those youth who have registered themselves at various district employment exchanges, but it doesn’t give actual figure of unemployment.
Every society has its protectors of status quo and its fraternities of the indifferent who are notorious for sleeping through revolutions. Today, our very survival depends on our ability to stay awake, to adjust to new ideas, to remain vigilant and to face the challenge of challenge”
Regarding the State of Jammu and Kashmir the youth here are brilliant and sharp minded but they have fears of unemployment. Our higher education is of less quality than other states of India but our state has potential to control this threat quickly than other parts of India. The state government must provide autonomy to state colleges anduniversity to recruit the staff and other infrastructure with independence from state government for funding purposes, they must produce their own revenue by increasing the fees for degree courses to high with satisfied higher education and job security in domestic and international markets. Employment as a subject is involved in the simultaneous list of the constitution of India. National Employment Service is a Joint concern of the Government of India and the State Governments. Compulsory Notification of Vacancies Act 1959 was passed by the Assembly to make it compulsory for the formations under Private and public Sectors to notify vacancies to the nearest Employment Exchanges and also to reduce prescribed returns. This Act though extended to the Jammu & Kashmir was applied by the state to the Private Sector only. The Employment Exchanges in Jammu & Kashmir State had been catering to the recruitment needs of various Central Government Departments and organisations. Jammu Kashmir has very high unemployment rate and as per a survey, Jammu Kashmir has 72 unemployed persons per thousand, which means the number of unemployed youth in the state is over 9 lakh. Unemployment in Jammu and Kashmir is not normal, it is what famous sociologist Emile Durkheim called pathology. Unemployment in Jammu and Kashmir is a social problem, which affects and damages society.
The personal and social costs of unemployment include. Unemployment leads to late marriage. The rising rate of unemployment in Jammu and Kashmir is one of the main reasons for late marriages. Due to unemployment the actual age of marriage in Kashmir had risen to 34 years in male and 29 years in female category respectively. The study had stated that major causes of late marriage in Kashmir valley were, acute poverty , dowry in different shapes , attaining modern education, the conflict situation and rising rate of unemployment. Unemployment is directly linked with poverty- one who is unemployed is faces a whole host of different problems. In response to this, he indulges in various illegal activities. Unemployment leads to tensions and Family issues; Unemployment causes physical hardships and mental agony not only to the individual of the employable age, but also to his family. It is the financial hardship that is produced through unemployment which directly affects the family relationship of the person.
Psychologists suggests that, marriage and family are negatively affected by the
Unemployment experience. A major effect of unemployment is that it tends to be socially isolating. At the psychological level there is shock, shame, loss of confidence and loss of occupation identity. This results in a tendency to withdraw from contact with others. Some people may reject the norms of the society which has apparently rejected them and engage in anti-social behaviors. One of the leading reasons behind soaring unemployment rate in Jammu & Kashmir is the weak performance of public sector in our part of the world. Currently, the
public sector of the state is in quiet unhealthy shape. Jammu & Kashmir state have properties worth billions of rupees at prime locations but still they are penniless and are not able to harness their rich potential so as to provide employment opportunities to youth. The lack of quality vocational courses in the premier educational institutions of the Kashmir Valley is also adding to the unemployment problem of Kashmir. Even the top level universities of Kashmir lack proper vocational courses. New domicile law is implemented upon Jammu and Kashmir. In domicile there are a lot of changes in various Sectors. Every Kashmiri resident have to make a domicile certificate, this certificate is mandatory for various purposes.The domicile certificate has been made mandatory for employment in Kashmir following amendments to the Jammu and Kashmir Civil Services rules. Eligible individuals from any part of India will also be granted the right to purchase immovable property in J&K, something that has not been possible till now in J&K and is still not possible in those parts of India governed by special laws and provisions. Despite the Indian state being overwhelmed with the economic collapse, migrant labour crisis and COVID-19 pandemic, the desire to subdue the Kashmiris has been funneled with astringent and virulent zeal. It drives home the message to the people of Kashmir that nothing, not even a medical emergency, can prevent the Indian state from doing what it wants to do in J&K. The rules do not merely grant people from all parts of India a right of residence in Kashmir. They also engineer a situation where Kashmiris must submit a certificate of permanent residence for verification of domicile if Kashmiris want the jobs where a domicile certificate is now required. The certificate of permanent residence was a constitutionally valid document and has been held by numerous judgments to be a “conclusive proof of residence”. Under the new rules, it merely carries evidentiary value for residence. Therefore, if a Kashmiri fails to meet the new criteria, whether by malice, manipulation or by design of the new rules, the revocation of residency rights will inevitably lead to their involuntary transfer from Kashmir in search of shelter and employment. All these initiatives have sparked fears of demographic change, militarised settlements, dispossession and alienation of land in Kashmir .The threat of demographic change, loss of livelihood and increased competition for scarce resources is bound to electrify an already incensed population. One of the great liabilities of history is that all too many people fail to remain awake through great periods of social change. Every society has its protectors of status quo and its fraternities of the indifferent who are notorious for sleeping through revolutions. Today, our very survival depends on our ability to stay awake, to adjust to new ideas, to remain vigilant and to face the challenge of challenge”
(The author is a freelancer. Views are his own, rayeesnabi3@gmail.com)

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